Taxonomy term

january 2018

Mediterranean tsunami record may be overreported

Tsunamis are one of the most destructive natural hazards on Earth, sometimes even upstaging the major earthquakes that send the waves surging across entire ocean basins. Knowing when, where and how severely tsunamis have struck coastlines in the past is valuable for countries trying to prepare for the impacts of future tsunamis. But distinguishing tsunami deposits in geologic paleorecords from deposits left by more common storm waves is notoriously difficult. Researchers recently highlighted this challenge by taking a hard look at tsunami- and storm-wave records around the Mediterranean Sea over the last 4,500 years. The findings may serve as a cautionary tale for scientists interpreting tsunami records elsewhere in the world.

18 Jan 2018

Mediterranean drawdown may have caused burst of volcanism

Between 5 million and 6 million years ago, during an event known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), large amounts of seawater evaporated from the Mediterranean Sea leaving massive salt deposits in the basin. How much the sea surface dropped during the MSC is debated, but in a new study in Nature Geoscience, researchers suggest that a large, kilometer-scale drawdown of the Mediterranean Sea may explain not just the thick salt deposits but also a pulse of magmatic activity around the region that occurred at the same time as the MSC.

17 Jan 2018

Small warm ponds: Ideal incubators for first life?

The first embers of life are thought to have emerged on Earth between 4.5 billion and 3.7 billion years ago, but how and where the initial sparks arose remains a mystery. Two leading theories suggest that the first self-replicating molecules — a necessity for life — may have gotten a start either in deep-ocean hydrothermal vents or in small warm ponds on land. In a new study, researchers suggest that the wet-dry cycles occurring in small, seasonal ponds would have made a better natural incubator.

17 Jan 2018

A flammable planet: Fire finds its place in Earth history

For hundreds of millions of years, wildfires have shaped the planet, from the plants, animals and ecosystems around us to the air we breathe. Yet scientists are only beginning to understand the planet’s fiery past. 
16 Jan 2018

Ice (Re)Cap: January 2018

From Antarctica to the Arctic; from polar caps, permafrost and glaciers to ocean-rafted sea ice; and from burly bears to cold-loving microbes, fascinating science is found in every nook and crevasse of Earth’s cryosphere, and new findings are announced often. Here are a few of the latest updates.

15 Jan 2018

It's an asteroid, no wait, a comet, no wait…

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has spied a unique object in the debris-filled asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter: a pair of asteroids — orbiting tightly around each other — that also show comet-like characteristics, including a bright halo of ice and dust known as a coma and a long tail of dust. The odd object, called 2006 VW139/288P, is the first known binary asteroid that is also classified as a main-belt comet.

12 Jan 2018

Travels in Geology: Roaming the rocky coastline of Downeast Maine

Maine is more than moose sightings, blueberry picking and lobster rolls. Explore the granite geology, scenic hiking trails and local color of the Downeast region, which spans the state’s northeastern coast, from Bar Harbor to the Canadian border.
11 Jan 2018

Predators may have spurred evolution of ancient brittle stars

Threats to species can encourage evolution, leading to animals with harder shells or other defensive adaptations. In a recent study in the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, researchers found that while some ancient brittle stars — relatives of starfish with long, whip-like arms — evolved in the face of threats, some adapted a different approach: they moved.

10 Jan 2018

Western wildfires affect water quality

Wildfires have burned increasing acreage in recent decades, a trend that’s expected to continue with global climate change. In the U.S. West, the frequency of fires has implications for water availability — both water used to fight wildfires and municipal water supplies, which can be contaminated by loosened debris from eroding, fire-burned slopes.

09 Jan 2018

Stable isotopes offer novel methods of disease detection

Stable isotope techniques developed by geoscientists are being applied to studies of human health, and one in particular has shown promise as an improved way to determine bone loss, a problem for astronauts, as well as those on bed rest and aging populations here on Earth. 
08 Jan 2018