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climate

Cloud feedbacks drive climate sensitivity

Fly over the tropical or subtropical oceans and you’ll see a white blanket of clouds covering the blue-green water. These low clouds, typically forming less than 2 to 3 kilometers above the ocean surface and covering up to 40 percent of Earth’s surface, play a critical role in the planet’s energy balance. Now, new research using satellite data and climate models to investigate how these clouds respond to climate change shows that they play a large role in regulating climate sensitivity.

17 Nov 2016

Persistent Pacific warmth overshadows El Niño

The El Niño of 2015–2016, dubbed a “super El Niño,” was officially declared over in May, bringing to a close one of the strongest El Niño events on record. Scientists are now unraveling the details of this climate phenomenon, and discovering how it interacted with other unusual ocean conditions to impact surface and subsurface ocean conditions within the California Current System (CCS) — one of the world’s major coastal upwelling zones and a region of great biologic productivity.

06 Nov 2016

Cave dripwater records wildfires

Water seeps through soil and bedrock before dripping from the roof of a cave and carries with it elements of the outside world and its climate history. That is why speleothems, cave structures formed via precipitation, can be studied as climate proxies. New research suggests that the chemistry of the cave dripwater can also contain the signature of wildfires that burned outside the cave, on the ground above the cave’s roof, yielding a more complex picture of the past.

27 Oct 2016

Humans, megafauna coexisted in Patagonia before extinction

During the last ice age, giant mammals roamed the wide-open steppes of what is now Patagonia. Around the time that humans were making their way down through North America and into South America, the climate began warming and large species of giant sloths and saber-toothed cats soon disappeared. Now, researchers looking at mitochondrial DNA from some of these megafaunal species are shedding light on the timing of the extinction and whether encroaching humans or changing climate — or both — were to blame for their disappearance.

11 Oct 2016

Tiny ocean bacteria could play big role in climate

In the 1990s, researchers identified the most abundant group of organisms in the ocean as Pelagibacterales, a class of free-living bacteria that live in surface waters as a microscopic but major part of the phytoplankton community. Now, a new study suggests that Pelagibacterales could play an important role in the global climate cycle by producing dimethylsulfide (DMS), an organosulfur compound that stimulates cloud formation when it gets into the atmosphere.

05 Sep 2016

Late Antique Little Ice Age underpinned unrest and upheaval in Europe and Asia

Effects of climate change on society aren’t just a contemporary concern. A new study has found that a cold snap in the sixth and seventh centuries may have been the catalyst for a period of societal turmoil, marked by famine, plague and political tumult.

06 Jul 2016

Comment: How long have humans been altering Earth's climate?

The early anthropogenic hypothesis holds that greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, as early as 7,000 years ago, kept the Holocene climate warmer than it otherwise would have been.

08 Apr 2016

Crippling heat stress projected by midcentury in densely populated regions

Extreme heat is the world’s top weather-related killer. Exposure to extreme heat caused more than 7,800 fatalities in the U.S. from 1999 to 2009, according to a 2013 report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And a single heat wave last summer killed at least 2,300 people in India, according to NOAA.

05 Apr 2016

North Sea uplift caused Jurassic cooling event

The climate of the Jurassic, long envisioned as ubiquitously warm from the equator to the poles, was actually more dynamic, sometimes cooling dramatically, according to a new study. The research joined isotopic and sedimentological data to suggest that an abrupt cooling event occurred in the midlatitudes early in the Middle Jurassic as a result of changing ocean currents associated with a feature known as the North Sea Dome.

31 Mar 2016

Atmosphere, more than ocean, might drive Atlantic climate variation

Atmospheric, not oceanic, circulation may be the main driver of climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean, potentially complicating future hurricane and drought predictions, according to the authors of a new study.
 
01 Feb 2016

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