Oceans

ocean

North Sea uplift caused Jurassic cooling event

The climate of the Jurassic, long envisioned as ubiquitously warm from the equator to the poles, was actually more dynamic, sometimes cooling dramatically, according to a new study. The research joined isotopic and sedimentological data to suggest that an abrupt cooling event occurred in the midlatitudes early in the Middle Jurassic as a result of changing ocean currents associated with a feature known as the North Sea Dome.

31 Mar 2016

No laughing matter: Ocean nitrous oxide emissions greater than thought

Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and, since the banning of chlorofluorocarbons in 1987, it has become the main driver of ozone loss from the stratosphere. Most atmospheric nitrous oxide is emitted from agricultural land and soils, but roughly a third is thought to come from the ocean. However, marine sources and sinks of the gas are not well understood. 
 
27 Nov 2015

Enceladus' extremely alkaline underground ocean

Saturn’s moon Enceladus is home to a vast underground ocean that erupts to the surface at the moon’s south pole in a giant plume of gas, ice and dust. Scientists studying observational data of this plume collected by the Cassini spacecraft, which has been orbiting Saturn since 2004, have recently learned more about the chemistry of Enceladus’ hidden ocean. 
 
24 Nov 2015

Ancient asteroids boiled Earth's oceans

The asteroid that wiped out the remaining dinosaurs — save for the avian variety — 66 million years ago was roughly 10 kilometers wide. Long before that, however, early Earth was bombarded by many larger impactors, which pulverized Earth’s surface time and again. Now, a new study published in Geology suggests that two asteroids, dating to Archean times and estimated to be 50 to 100 kilometers in diameter, released enough energy to boil the oceans and reduce sea level by as much as 100 meters or more.
 
10 Oct 2015

Southbound icebergs off the hook for ice-age cooling

During the Late Pleistocene, changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation triggered abrupt changes in global climate: In some locations in the Northern Hemisphere, average temperatures dropped by as much as 10 degrees Celsius within a few decades. Scientists have long thought that freshwater from melting icebergs traveling south from the Arctic may have instigated the circulation shifts that contributed to cooling feedback loops. But now, scientists looking at seafloor sediments collected near Iceland have found that pulses of icebergs typically arrived after the onset of cooling episodes, too late to be primary drivers of climate change.
 
11 Aug 2015

A pair of moons with underground oceans

Jupiter and Saturn are both gas giants boasting multiple moons. Now, two separate studies have identified another similarity: Each appears to have a moon with hidden underground oceans.
 
02 Aug 2015

Some coral reefs bounce back after bleaching

Ocean temperatures that rise too much or for too long can harm coral reefs, sometimes causing mass die-offs that leave reefs nearly barren of live corals. But scientists don’t know if or under what conditions reefs can recover from such catastrophes. Now, a new study suggests that, given time and the right conditions, even once-decimated reefs can recoup their losses.

09 Apr 2015

Did three convicts survive their escape from Alcatraz? Modern modeling adds to a decades-old mystery

What is known about the caper is that three inmates — brothers Clarence and John Anglin, along with Frank Morris — dug their way out of the supposedly escape-proof federal penitentiary, located in San Francisco Bay, on the night of June 11, 1962. Leaving realistic-looking heads sculpted from papier maché, complete with real hair, in their bunks as dummies, the convicts made their way to the shoreline with a makeshift raft assembled mostly from several dozen rubber raincoats. They slipped off the island into dense fog and were never seen or heard from again.

14 Jan 2015

Pliocene tropical oceans were warmer after all

Scientists may have overturned the idea that Earth’s tropical oceans were the same temperature during the Early to Middle Pliocene — between about 5 million and 3 million years ago — as they are today, despite the world being a far warmer place then.

12 Dec 2014

Bare Earth Elements: Search the seafloor firsthand (and live!)

If you’ve ever wanted to take a dive into the ocean depths and explore the seafloor below the waves, but just haven’t had the time (or financing) to build your own deep-sea submersible, here’s another solution. NOAA’s 68-meter Okeanos Explorer — the only federally funded ship dedicated to “solely to exploration” — is currently trolling the Atlantic Ocean on the three-week third leg of a mission dubbed “Our Deepwater Backyard: Exploring Atlantic Canyons and Seamounts 2014,” and it’s offering to take guests along for part of the ride.

24 Sep 2014

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