Taxonomy term

north atlantic

How the Arctic became salty

The Arctic Ocean hasn’t always been as salty as other oceans. In the Eocene, between 56 million and 34 million years ago, the water surrounding the North Pole — freshened by melt from sea ice and river runoff — was cut off from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by land bridges. At some point, plate tectonic processes opened the North Atlantic, submerging the land bridges and allowing saltwater to pour into the Arctic, but the timing and details of these events are largely unknown. New research suggests a tipping point may have been reached as one particular land bridge submerged far enough below the ocean surface.

25 Sep 2017

Are North Atlantic storm tracks shifting south?

As the Arctic warms, decreasing temperature differences between the Arctic and the lower latitudes may push North Atlantic storm systems south. The factors that influence storm tracks are complicated, however, and the accuracy of models predicting future storm tracks is uncertain. The results of a new study, in which researchers looked at changes in Atlantic storm tracks over the past 4,000 years, could improve the accuracy of predictive models and help Europe prepare for shifting storm patterns.

19 May 2017

Southbound icebergs off the hook for ice-age cooling

During the Late Pleistocene, changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation triggered abrupt changes in global climate: In some locations in the Northern Hemisphere, average temperatures dropped by as much as 10 degrees Celsius within a few decades. Scientists have long thought that freshwater from melting icebergs traveling south from the Arctic may have instigated the circulation shifts that contributed to cooling feedback loops. But now, scientists looking at seafloor sediments collected near Iceland have found that pulses of icebergs typically arrived after the onset of cooling episodes, too late to be primary drivers of climate change.
 
11 Aug 2015

1912 not an exceptional iceberg year

A new study disputes the notion that an exceptional number of icebergs were floating in the North Atlantic the year the Titanic collided with one at roughly 42 degrees North latitude and quickly sank, killing more than 1,500 people. However, the study also suggests that weather conditions around the time of the sinking likely pushed icebergs farther south than normal for that time of year.

08 Jan 2015

Massive icebergs scoured Arctic seafloor

In August 1990, the R/V Polar­stern departed Tromsø, Norway, to investigate the ocean bottom bathymetry of the Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard. More than 20 years later, marine geologist Jan Erik Arndt and his colleagues at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, were reviewing data from the cruise when they discovered something new — the deepest evidence of iceberg scouring ever found.

13 Nov 2014