Taxonomy term

adityarup chakravorty

Searching for the volcanic origins of iron ore

Most iron ore comes from sedimentary deposits. However, a sizeable minority is mined from volcanic rocks, including those found along the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, and in Kiruna, Sweden.

09 Aug 2018

Cracking the temperature of columnar jointing

When molten rock cools and contracts, it sometimes cracks to form geometrically shaped columns. This process, called columnar jointing, has led to several famous geological structures.

20 Jul 2018

From silver to snow: Full cloud seeding cycle observed

Cloud seeding — adding particles to clouds to modify precipitation patterns — has been suggested as a way to trigger rain and snowfall, which could help sustain mountain snowpack and water supplies across the western U.S. However, it has been challenging to demonstrate the technique’s effectiveness and efficiency, in part because direct observations of the full chain of events involved in cloud seeding have been lacking.

25 May 2018

Measuring earthquakes using fiber-optic cables

Fiber-optic cables crisscross the world, ferrying digital data and enabling internet access and telecommunication. In a new study, published in Geophysical Research Letters, researchers tested whether fiber-optic cables can also be used to detect and measure earthquakes.

23 Mar 2018

Lakeshore shape influences lake-effect snow

On Dec. 11, 2013, Upstate New York’s Tug Hill region received more than 100 centimeters of snow in 24 hours. And annually, the region, which covers more than 5,000 square kilometers to the east of Lake Ontario, can see up to five times that amount. In comparison, Toronto, on the northwestern coast of the lake, averages less than 125 centimeters of snow each year.

06 Mar 2018

In the lab, machine learning improves quake forecasts

The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that about 500,000 detectable earthquakes occur worldwide every year. But accurate forecasts of when quakes will occur have long been out of reach, in large part because of the complexities of fault behavior.

29 Dec 2017

Microbes care about energy efficiency

Microbes live in some of the most extreme environments on Earth, from the crushing depths of deep-sea trenches to scalding geothermal springs. Part of the reason microbes thrive in many different environments is their ability to use a variety of energy sources — including light, organic matter, and inorganic materials like hydrogen, sulfur, and iron — to power the metabolic reactions that allow them to grow and survive.

20 Oct 2017

Solar-powered paint could produce hydrogen for fuel

Split a water molecule, and you get hydrogen and oxygen. Burn that hydrogen as fuel and you get water. This straightforward, pollution-free cycle is part of what makes hydrogen so tantalizing as a potential renewable fuel. Unfortunately, splitting water molecules to generate hydrogen is not currently very energy efficient. In fact, more than 95 percent of hydrogen currently used in industry is produced from fossil fuels, not water.

05 Oct 2017

When schools shake: Keeping students and teachers safe during earthquakes

After seismic events strike schools, ensuring that people are safe and education is minimally disrupted are simple goals with complex solutions. Researchers and stakeholders are working together to navigate the maze of financial, social and technical challenges involved.
04 Sep 2017

Reconstructing ancient oxidant levels and their climatic effects

Oxidants in the troposphere, such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals, influence the life spans of other atmospheric components, including pollutants and greenhouse gases like carbon monoxide and methane. But how the abundance of tropospheric oxidants varies as climate changes is poorly understood. Part of the challenge is that these oxidants are too reactive to be preserved in paleo-records, such as ice cores.

29 Aug 2017

Pages