Taxonomy term

timothy oleson

Irrigation drives rain away in East Africa

Researchers have found that large-scale agricultural irrigation, intended to supplement precipitation, may actually drive rainfall away, potentially exacerbating conditions in some areas while improving them in nonirrigated lands. 
28 Jan 2016

Impact or eruptions: Are both to blame in the great end-Cretaceous whodunit?

Few episodes in geologic history are as widely recognized — and debated — as the end-Cretaceous extinction. For several decades, the Chicxulub impact has been the primary suspect. But new research suggests the impact wasn’t solely responsible for the extinctions; widespread volcanism in India seemed to play a role as well.

25 Jan 2016

Widespread malaria risk from African dams

Large dams cause more than 1 million cases of malaria annually in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the authors of a new study published in Malaria Journal.
17 Jan 2016

Red Planet Roundup: January 2016

With two rovers patrolling the surface of Mars, five spacecraft orbiting above it, and scientists here on Earth studying the Red Planet from afar, new findings are announced often. Here are a few of the latest updates.
14 Jan 2016

Lake sediments suggest mild volcanic winter after massive Toba eruption

Roughly 74,000 years ago, the largest volcanic eruption of at least the last 2.5 million years — and possibly the last 27 million years — spewed as much as 5,000 cubic kilometers of magma and ash, the latter of which spread far and wide from the source. This catastrophic eruption of the Toba supervolcano on the Indonesian island of Sumatra has long been suggested as a trigger for a precipitous period of global cooling known as a “volcanic winter” that in turn might have driven early humans to the brink of extinction. In a new study, researchers dispute these notions, concluding from an analysis of climate-sensitive microfossils preserved in lake sediments in East Africa — the ancestral home of early humans — that the region experienced little or no cooling following the massive eruption. 
10 Jan 2016

Meteorites might have created Earth’s earliest continents

Massive meteorite impacts on Earth are destructive events, gouging enormous craters in the crust and raining debris over the planet’s surface. But such huge impacts may have also created some of its earliest continental kernels, called cratons, during Archean times.
08 Jan 2016

Subseafloor biosphere extended to greatest depth yet

Scientists studying sediments collected from the deepest scientific borehole ever drilled have found microorganisms living at astounding depths beneath the seafloor. Recent studies have previously found bacteria and archaea scratching out meager livings in marine sediments buried as deep as 1.9 kilometers, but the new find extends the known biosphere even farther down.
22 Dec 2015

Magnetic field around since Hadean

Earth’s magnetic field might have been shielding the planet from solar radiation and contributing to its habitability 770 million years earlier than previously recognized, according to a new study in Science.
17 Dec 2015

Nearly half of Americans in lower 48 at risk for potentially damaging quake shaking

An estimated 143 million Americans in the conterminous 48 states, or about 46 percent of the population, live in areas susceptible to potentially damaging ground shaking from natural earthquakes, according to a new study by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists published in the journal Earthquake Spectra. (The study did not assess hazards associated with human-induced quakes.)
16 Dec 2015

Ice (Re)Cap: December 2015

From Antarctica to the Arctic; from polar caps, permafrost and glaciers to ocean-rafted sea ice; and from burly bears to cold-loving microbes, fascinating science is found in every nook and crevasse of Earth’s cryosphere, and new findings are announced often. Here are a few of the latest updates.
15 Dec 2015