Taxonomy term

kate s. zalzal

Cosmic suntan

An international team of astronomers recently measured the amount of light hitting Earth that comes from outside our galaxy across a broad range of wavelengths.

22 Dec 2016

Rethinking Pangea? Ancient ocean crust challenges supercontinent theory

The oldest piece of undisturbed oceanic crust ever discovered has been found beneath the eastern Mediterranean Sea, hidden under more than 10 kilometers of sediment. This ancient crust — estimated at up to 100 million years older than the oldest oceanic crust previously known — could reshape our view of global tectonics and the supercontinent cycle.

21 Dec 2016

A story in the sediment: Emperor Yu's "Great Flood" may have been real

Ancient Chinese texts re-count the story of a great flood on the Yellow River some 4,000 years ago and Emperor Yu’s heroic efforts to dredge and redirect floodwaters, thereby taming the prolonged and catastrophic floodwaters and setting the stage for the agricultural boom that followed. His success is said to have proved a divine mandate for establishing the Xia dynasty, the first in China’s history. But in the absence of geological evidence for such a flood, scholars have long disagreed as to the veracity of the story.

13 Dec 2016

Smokier U.S. West as climate changes

Extended wildfire seasons and larger and more frequent burns will likely be the consequence of the hotter and drier conditions expected to result from climate change. New research shows that this expected surge in wildfires also poses a growing threat to human health.

11 Dec 2016

Tiny bones pull India into the story of early primate evolution

Bones of an ancient rat-sized, tree-dwelling primate have recently been discovered in a coal mine in Gujarat, India, and may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades.

07 Dec 2016

Cloud feedbacks drive climate sensitivity

Fly over the tropical or subtropical oceans and you’ll see a white blanket of clouds covering the blue-green water. These low clouds, typically forming less than 2 to 3 kilometers above the ocean surface and covering up to 40 percent of Earth’s surface, play a critical role in the planet’s energy balance. Now, new research using satellite data and climate models to investigate how these clouds respond to climate change shows that they play a large role in regulating climate sensitivity.

17 Nov 2016

Persistent Pacific warmth overshadows El Niño

The El Niño of 2015–2016, dubbed a “super El Niño,” was officially declared over in May, bringing to a close one of the strongest El Niño events on record. Scientists are now unraveling the details of this climate phenomenon, and discovering how it interacted with other unusual ocean conditions to impact surface and subsurface ocean conditions within the California Current System (CCS) — one of the world’s major coastal upwelling zones and a region of great biologic productivity.

06 Nov 2016

Kilauea increases asthma risk

Kilauea may be best known for its picturesque red lava flowing into the ocean, but new research presented this week at the Geological Society of America annual meeting in Denver, Colo., suggests that locally, the volcano may be known for something more dangerous: asthma. The new study links gaseous eruptions from the Hawaiian volcano to increased asthma risk for those living downwind, especially children.

 
28 Sep 2016

Zircons hold clues to early Earth

Not much is known about the first 500 million years of Earth’s history, between 4.5 billion and 4 billion years ago. We know the interior of the planet was hotter than it is today, and that Earth’s surface experienced intense meteorite bombardment, which left the surface pocked with magma-filled craters. But with no rock record available from this period — the oldest rocks are 4.04 billion years old — scientists must look to the composition of tiny grains of the mineral zircon to provide clues about Earth during the Hadean Eon. But where did the zircons come from?

09 Sep 2016

Benchmarks: September 8, 1900: Massive hurricane strikes Galveston, Texas

Everyone said it couldn’t happen. City leaders saw no need for an expensive seawall, trusting local meteorologist Isaac Cline when he claimed that it was “impossible for any cyclone to ... materially injure the city.” And so, on the morning of Sept. 8, 1900, when the skies over Galveston, Texas, darkened with rain and the winds blew strong, residents of this booming barrier island community believed their city could weather any storm. By the next morning, the city lay in ruin, blasted by a Category-4 hurricane that killed an estimated 10,000 people — a quarter of the island’s population — and more than the combined death tolls of all other landfalling U.S. hurricanes since.

08 Sep 2016

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