Taxonomy term

geology

Limestone reservoirs boost volcanic carbon emissions

Volcanoes have been the main source of atmospheric carbon over Earth’s history, with some types of eruptions injecting more carbon into the atmosphere than others. Arc volcanoes, for example, which form in chains along subduction zones, are responsible for up to two-thirds of all volcanic carbon emissions today, and have likely been major contributors for as long as they’ve existed. New research suggests a reason why: These volcanoes draw large amounts of carbon from limestone platforms found along many subduction zones. The finding has implications for how the volcanic carbon cycle affects climate over geologic timescales.

18 Oct 2017

Water weight and surface rebound trigger small quakes in California

On average, a cubic meter of snow weighs less than 100 kilograms, but heavy, compacted snow can weigh more than 500 kilograms per cubic meter, with glacial ice approaching 900 kilograms per cubic meter. In California, as elsewhere, the weight of winter snow and spring runoff pushes down on the landscape, affecting stresses on fault systems, which may trigger small quakes. As the snow melts and the runoff makes its way downstream, land rebounds, setting off more small earthquakes.

12 Oct 2017

First complete DNA sequences from Egyptian mummies

Egyptian mummies provide archaeologists with a tantalizing window into ancient Egyptian culture. And now they are offering up their DNA.

11 Oct 2017

Mapping Louisiana's disappearing shoreline

Since the 1930s, Louisiana has lost an area of coastal wetlands larger than the state of Delaware. A new map, published in GSA Today, charts the land loss from a combination of man-made and natural factors, including reduced sediment flow from the Mississippi River, land subsidence and sea-level rise.

10 Oct 2017

Lollipop-shaped ice found in clouds

A sky full of lollipops might sound like a candy-filled dream, but these “treats” aren’t what you might think.

Researchers discovered tiny lollipop-shaped ice crystals, or ice-lollies, during research flights in 2009 and 2016 over the Atlantic Ocean. 

09 Oct 2017

Geologic Column: A masochist hikes through the heather

A hike in the Scottish Highlands can be a delightful sojourn or a miserable plod in the rain.

06 Oct 2017

Solar-powered paint could produce hydrogen for fuel

Split a water molecule, and you get hydrogen and oxygen. Burn that hydrogen as fuel and you get water. This straightforward, pollution-free cycle is part of what makes hydrogen so tantalizing as a potential renewable fuel. Unfortunately, splitting water molecules to generate hydrogen is not currently very energy efficient. In fact, more than 95 percent of hydrogen currently used in industry is produced from fossil fuels, not water.

05 Oct 2017

New method offers improved monitoring of Kilauea

Kilauea Volcano, on Hawaii’s Big Island, has been erupting continuously since 1983, mostly releasing relatively slow-moving lava flows, although rare violent eruptions have occurred. Both explosive and nonexplosive eruptions pose risks to tourists, roughly 2.6 million of whom visit Kilauea annually, as well as to island residents whose safety and property have at times been put in jeopardy by flowing lava.

04 Oct 2017

Travels in Geology: Cones and craters in Flagstaff, Arizona

Few places in the country exhibit as many types of volcanic features — including jagged lava flows, crumbly cinder cones and the remnants of a towering stratovolcano — in as small an area as northern Arizona’s San Francisco Volcanic Field.
04 Oct 2017

Minerals deformed by meteorites reveal age of impact

Researchers have discovered a new way to determine when a meteorite hit Earth, a technique that could not only help scientists date ancient meteorite strikes but also determine when planetary crusts first formed.

03 Oct 2017

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